Glass is made primarily of liquid sand; yes the sand you find on a beach. Made mostly of silicon dioxide, the sand is heated up until it turns into a liquid. Once cooled, it doesn’t turn back into sand, but rather the glass you see around you! Don’t worry about your favorite beach though, sand melts around 2930 °F (1610 °C).
When scientists were testing the first nuclear bomb, in New Mexico, the heat of the explosion turned the sand into glass! Called Trinitite, this glass is left behind on the desert floor of the Trinity testing site!
Well now you do!
Cool facts about Saturn: Saturn is the second largest and sixth furthest planet from the Sun in our Solar System. This massive gas giant is most famous for the amazing ring system that orbits it. Like Jupiter, Neptune and Uranus, Saturn is made entirely of gas. It is composed primarily of 96% hydrogen and 4% helium. This means if you were to visit Saturn, you wouldn’t actually be able to stand on it (not much of a trip).
Named after the Roman god of wealth and agriculture, the famous astronomer Galileo Galilei first observed Saturn’s rings in 1610 though his telescope. Humans have known about Saturn for centuries prior to Galileo’s observations. Records from ancient Babylonian astronomers, nearly 3,000 BC (~5,000 years ago) show written movements of the planet.
1. Saturn is the flattest planet in our solar system
Because of the comparison between its large equatorial diameter (waistline) of 75,000 mi (120,500 km) and its polar diameter, which is 90% (67,560 mi (108,730 km)), the oval shaped Saturn comes in as the flattest all our planets.
2. Saturn takes its time going around the Sun
Saturn orbits the Sun once every 29.4 Earth years. If you’re reading this and are less than 29.4 years old, Saturn has not yet completed a Saturnian year, or a complete orbit around the Sun in your lifetime.
3. Saturn has quite a collection of moons.
Currently (as of 2019), Saturn had 82 known moons, with Titan being the most famous of these celestial bodies. There are dozens of moonlets the orbit Saturn, but are too small to be classified as moons.
Titan is by far the biggest thing orbiting Saturn. Ninety percent of all of the mass in orbit around Saturn is Titan (this includes the rings). Bigger than Mercury, Titan is the only moon that has its own atmosphere. When the Cassini spacecraft flew by Titan, it sent back several pictures and released the Huygens space probe towards its surface.
In 2014, NASA reported they had seen signs of a new moon forming around Saturn. They noticed that matter on one of Saturn’s rings was starting to congregate.
4. Saturn would float in a tank of water!
Because it’s mostly made of gas, if you had a tank of water big enough to hold this giant, Saturn would float! The Earth for instance, made primarily of rocks and denser chemicals, would sink.
5. The rings of Saturn are not one solid piece
Saturn’s defining characteristic is its beautiful rings. These are primarily made of ice, rocks and dust. They vary greatly in size, with some being smaller than gains of sand, and others being taller than buildings!
6. Each one of Saturn’s rings orbits at a different speed
Saturn’s rings stretch out more than 75,000 miles (120,700 km) from the planet. Amazingly, they are only about 65 feet (20 m) wide!
7. Saturn has a unique formation of banded clouds
Similar to Jupiter, Saturn displays a banded pattern of clouds. These cloud layers are a reflection of Saturn’s rotation and follow lines on the planet’s latitude. The dark bands are usually areas of strong methane absorption, whereas the light bands are thick clouds which cover the methane below.
These bands move at different speeds and their jagged edges are caused when bands of differing speeds interact. Sometimes reactions originating from within the planet causes these bands to interact.
8. Winds on Saturn can reach 1,600 feet (500 m) per second!
Winds within Earth’s strongest hurricanes are no match for the wind speeds of Saturn. In comparison, the strongest hurricane winds found on earth are around 360 feet (110 m) per second. These are the fastest
9. The north pole of Saturn is a hexagonal cloud pattern
The picture below taken by the Cassini spacecraft really highlights this point. The wind pattern on the north pole, forms a near perfect hexagon.
Discovered in 1981, the sides of the hexagon are 9,000 miles (14,500 km) long (this is more than the width of Earth). The wind speeds in this shape are moving at nearly 200 miles (320 km) per hour.
The triple point of water (or any substance) is the perfect alignment of temperature and pressure, where water vapor, liquid water, and ice coexist in equilibrium. This occurs at a pressure of 611.657 Pa and a temperature of 32.018 °F (0.01 °C)
If looked at on a phase diagram, like the one below, you can see the triple point of water where all three phases connect. A phase diagram is graphical representation of different temperatures, pressures and the physical states of a substance.
Amazing facts about the human body
The human body is our home in the universe and it is absolutely amazing! The evolutionary marvel that is the human body is made up of cells that congregate to form tissues that together form organs.
1. 35 trillion cells work together to make you!
An average adult body is made up of nearly 35 trillion cells (that’s: 35,000,000,000,000 ). Although, this number does depend on a person’s size, on average it holds between 30 to 40 trillion cells.
2. The human body is mostly water
We’ve all heard this one about a billion times, but the extent of which this is true is baffling. On average, an adult is made up of 60% to 70% water. Infants (<1) on the hand are typically higher around 75% to 78%. If you look at the image below you’ll see a breakdown of organs and their water percentage.
- Women: 2.7 liters (91 ounces) of water daily
- Men: 3.7 liters (125 ounces) of water daily
- Keep in mind this is including all food and beverages
3. Your Femurs are stronger than concrete!
The longest bone in the human body is the Femur which runs from your hip to your knees. The Femur is 4 times stronger than concrete (They should make roads out of bones!…. yeah that joke doesn’t really work).
One cubic inch of bone can bear a load of about 19,000 pounds (8,618 kg). This is roughly 5 pick up trucks!
So then why do you get fractures? Fractures occur due to the amount of force placed on bones from speed in addition to the weight of an impact.
4. Your heat pumps about 2,000 gallons of blood each day
Time to say thank you to your heart! In comparison, if you had a circular pool with a diameter of 10 feet and a depth of 3 feet: that pool would contain about 1,700 gallons.
5. The human body loses 94 bones from birth to adulthood
When you’re born your skeletal system is made up of around 300 bones and as we become adults, this number is reduced to 206.
The primary reason for this is cartilage. Cartilage is rubber-like padding that covers the ends of bones and protects them from impact. Over time this cartilage ossifies (turns into bone). A good example is a soft spot on babies’ heads. At birth, a baby’s skull is made up of 8 separate bones and this reduces to 4 as they began to fuse together.
6. The nervous system is powered by 46 miles (74 km) of nerves!
Nerve impulses back and forth from your brain can travel as fast as 270 miles (434 km) per hour! You have to be fast when you need to cover 46 miles.
7. Your heart beats 35 million times a day. That’s 2.5 billion times in a lifetime!
8. Red blood cells only last 120 days
The lifespan of a red blood cell is quite short. Only lasting about 4 months, these essential cells bring oxygen to the other 35 trillion cells that make us up.
In their lifetime, red blood cells will make around 250,000 trips around the body before dying.
9. The human body contains nearly 6 liters of blood
Think three 2-liter soda bottles. That’s how much blood is circulating around the human body at any given time.
Blood travels around your body 3 times a minute. That’s almost 12,000 miles (19,312 km) a day! Just for reference, the width of Russia is 5,590 miles and that’s more than two cross Russia trips!
Even though everything with Pumbaa is gas, he was right about stars being “balls of gas burning billions of miles away”. Our Sun, is one of these great balls of gas. This center of our Solar System is technically a G-type main-sequence star, more commonly called a yellow dwarf star. Playing a major role in numerous ancient religions, the Sun has always amazed our species. Forming about 4.6 billion years ago, the Sun is essential to everything that occurs on our rocky world. Below are some facts about the sun.
1. The Sun is 99.86% of all of the mass in the Solar System
The Sun in unfathomably massive when compared to the rest of our Solar system. The radius of the Sun is 864,576 miles (1,391,400 km). Light traveling at 186,000 mi/s (300,000 km/s) would take 4.638 seconds to travel from one side to the other!
2. Every second the Sun fuses 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium
Better known as nuclear fusion, the Sun combines two hydrogen atomic nuclei together to form helium. Eventually the Sun will run out of hydrogen, having converted it all to helium.
At this point, the Sun will undergo a significant change in its core and outer layers, eventually transforming our yellow dwarf into a red giant. The size of the Sun at this point will be large enough to engulf Mercury and Venus. Even though this would make the Earth inhabitable, it’s still five billion years away… so don’t worry about it. They grow up so fast don’t they…
3. The Sun is moving at 137 miles (220 km) per second
Our solar system is moving even though it doesn’t seem it is. Our solar system is about 25,000 light years (just for a dumb reference that’s 1.4697 E+17 miles) away from the center of the Milky Way galaxy. We travel around this spinning disk and the Sun which holds us in place, travels around it at 137 miles per second.
4. The Sun is VERY VERY hot!
Due to its immense weight and size, the temperatures in the core of the Sun can reach 15,710,000 Kelvin. That’s around 28.3 million degrees F (15.7 million degrees C). And I thought the stove got hot.
5. The northern lights and caused by the Sun
The Aurora Borealis (northern hemisphere) and Aurora Australis (southern hemisphere) are a natural display of lights generally seen around the Arctic and Antarctic regions. These are caused by the solar winds ejected from the Sun that collide with the Earth’s magnetic field. Upon impact, these charged particles are forced into the magnetic field lines where they collide with atmospheric gases and release photons of light, which we see as the northern lights
6. The Sun could fit over a million Earth’s inside it
If we could open up the Sun and start dumping Earths into it, there would be 960,000 spherical Earth’s that could fit. Now, if we could squash them to remove any space, we could get 1,300,000 Earths in there. Stupid fact? yes, but cool none the less 🙂
7. The Sun weighs 4.4×10^30 pounds (2×10^30 kg)
2,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg or 4,400,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 pounds. Enough said
8. The Sun rotates
Our very own personal flaming star rotates every 25-36 Earth days.
9. The Sun is one of the brightest stars in the Milky Way
Most of the stars in our galaxy are red dwarfs, which are considered low luminosity. The Sun a G dwarf star (yellow dwarf) is estimated to be brighter than 85% of the stars of the Milky Way. I’m so proud!
10. Sunspots are temporary dark spots on the Sun
These dark spots that appear on the surface of our Sun are areas of reduced temperature. They are caused by areas of high magnetic fields. These fields are higher than anywhere else on the Sun and cause a decrease in the atmosphere pressure. This lowers the temperature of the area and prevents the flow of new gases towards the Sun’s core. Averaging the size of our Earth, these dark spots are temporary. Source: National Weather Service
Below are some facts about earth, the wonderful rock hurling through the cosmos that we call home. The Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only planet in our Solar System, heck in our Universe, that we know of, that harbors what we call life. Formed over 4.6 billion years ago, from clumps of dust and particles, the Earth orbits in the so called Goldilocks zone (also known as the habitable zone or life zone).
The Goldilocks zone is a very small orbital region around a star. This zone is not too hot, not too cold, but just right to where habitable life can as we know it can exist. One key component is the existence of liquid water. On Venus, the water evaporates, whereas on Mars the water is frozen in ice. As astronomers look for other planets that could host life, they look for planets in the Goldilocks zone of their respective stars.
1. The Earth is not a sphere
Before you start to roll your eyes and think I believe the Earth is flat, all I’m saying here is that the Earth is not a perfect sphere. It turns out our planet is starting to get love handles. Scientifically speaking, our planet has an equatorial bulge. While this only extends roughly 26 miles (42 km) wider at the equator than at the poles, this means the Earth is more of an oval rather than a perfect circle. This is really just fat shaming, if you shrunk the Earth down to a diameter of 1 meter (3.28 feet), the difference at its equator would only be 3 millimeters (0.12 inches).
2. You are moving a lot faster than you think
You might be eating some Cheetos and sitting back on the couch reading this, but you’re moving quite fast. At the equator the Earth spins at ~25,000 miles (~40,075 km) per second! Next time someone tells you they’re lazy, just slap them in the face with that knowledge.
3. The Earth’s poles are going to flip flop
If you’re one of the unfortunate souls to have seen the movie, “The Core”, you might think the world is going to end! Yeah this isn’t the case. Turns out that Earth’s magnetic poles flip quite frequently (every 200,000 to 300,000 years).
The magnetic field around the Earth is generated by the core of our planet. The constant churning of liquid elements creates electric currents, which in turn generate a magnetic field around our planet. Scientific models suggest that new fields are frequently added due to this churning motion. These new fields generally line up N to S with the existing field, but once in a while they line up in the opposite direction. These “instabilities” are temporary, but on rare occasions, the reversed field gets bigger and takes over the entire core, shifting the magnetic poles.
4. A day on Earth is not 24 hours
Ever think 24 hours in a day isn’t enough? Well, I’m about to make it worse… A day, or the time it takes the Earth to make one rotation, is actually 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.09 seconds. This is completely based on its rotation and is called a Sidereal day. Damn Illuminati trying to control time!
The 24 hours we’ve come to know and love is a solar day. The orbit of the Earth around the Sun is elliptical rather than circular, which means that the 24 hours is the average time between successive passes of the Sun over a meridian (line of longitude). Current average solar days are 24.0000006 hours long or 365.24 days, which result in leap years to make up the time.
5. Earth absorbed its twin planet!
After analysis of rocks from the Apollo missions, researchers from UCLA hypothesize that Earth had a twinish planet named Theia that collided with Earth. This resulted in the release of lots of debris which resulted in the formation of our moon. This hypothesis suggests that the combination of the two planet’s core explains why the core of the Earth is bigger than most planets of its size. This theory is called the giant-impact hypothesis.
6. We have oceans?
Seventy one percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by water. Furthermore, the five great oceans that cover our globe,hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth’s water. Despite the essential role oceans play in our daily lives, from the air we breathe to the global climate, we have only explored 5% of them.
7. The rotation of the Earth is starting to slow down
Looking backwards, scientists hypothesize that the length of an average day on Earth ~1.4 billion years ago was only 18 hours, in comparison to our 24. This elongation of the day will evidently continue as the Earth grows older. The culprit… our moon! The rock upon which Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin first stepped, moves away from us ~1.5 inches (3.8 cm) each year. 1.4 billion years ago, the moon was much closer to the planet and resulted in a faster Earthy rotation. Over an extremely long period of time as the moon moves further away, our days on Earth will start to be longer.
8. Mount Everest is not the highest point on Earth
WTF mate! If you look at the distance from the center of the Earth to a mountain’s summit, Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador in further from the center than Mount Everest.
Not to steal more thunder from Mount Everest, it’s also not the tallest mountain on Earth. That honor belong Mauna Kea on the big island in Hawaii. This volcano from it’s base underwater to the peak is 33,500 ft (10,210 m). Mount Everest when measured from sea level tops out at 29,029 ft (8,848 m). The info graphic from NOAA highlights these points really well. Mind blown right?
9. Light takes it’s sweet time getting to us
Because of the 92,955,807 miles (149,597,870 km) gap between the Earth and our Sun, light takes 8 minutes and 19 seconds to reach us. Being the fastest object in the universe and the speed limit of the cosmos, light travels at 186000 miles (300000 km) per second. This means, if the Sun were to disappear or explode RIGHT MEOW, we wouldn’t know about it for 8 minutes and 19 seconds. Technically… that means are always looking back in time when we look up at the sky :).
10. The deepest point on the Earth is in the Mariana Trench
I have to add an asterisks here, as the deepest natural point on the Earth is located in the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Coming in at 35,853 ft (10,928 m), the Challenger Deep is a drop located on the southern side of the Mariana Trench.
The deepest man-made point on Earth is the Z-44 Chayvo Oil Well. Dug on Russia’s eastern coast, this monster has a depth of 40,604 ft (12,376 m). Crazy comparison here: commercial planes fly between 30,000 and 38,000 feet (9,144 and 11,582 m) above the surface of the Earth. The things we do for black gold!
Scientists believe that it rains diamonds on Neptune as well as Uranus. The hypothesis is that when large lightning storms, which happen often, strike methane (CH4), carbon (C) atoms are broken away and clump in soot. These carbon clumps then fall lower into the atmosphere where the extreme pressure and temperatures squeeze them into solid diamonds!
Now what’s cheaper… traveling to Neptune or to the local jewelry store? Well… it’s only 2.795 billion miles (4.498 billion km), so lets get packing!
Well now you do!
Amazing facts about the human body: Round 2! (Round 1 Link)
Put simply, we are a collection of 35 trillion cells that make up the human body. Below are some more amazing things about our spaceship through the cosmos.
1. 25% of our bones are in our feet!
This sounds crazy, but it’s true. There are 26 bones in each foot of an adult, totaling 52 from both feet. That’s 25% of the 206 total bones in our body. A lot goes into making you walk.
2. Your mouth has more bacteria than people on Earth!
The mouth of an average person has between 20 to 100 billion bacteria in comparison to nearly 8 billion human inhabitants on Earth. People you reach for the Listerine, you should know that these bacteria are part of our normal microbiome and actually protect us from dangerous diseases.
3. By the time you turn 70, you will have consumed 12,000 gallons of water!
That’s nearly the quantity held within a small in-ground pool!
4. Human intestines are between 19 to 23 feet long
It takes a long of work and time to digest all the food we eat. This job is given to our digestive system, which spreads itself out to great lengths (see what I did there 🙂 ) to extract nutrients and remove waste.
5. Your skeleton accounts for around 14% of your body weight.
This is great news because now I can prove to people I’m big-boned. Without our skeleton, we’d all just be blobs though, so lets not “Brackium Emendo” just yet and keep walking around.
6. The liver is the only organ that can completely regenerate
Take that Hugh Jackman! We all got a little Wolverine in us! It was discovered by Fausto et. all in 2006 that only 25% of the liver can regenerate the entire organ. Time to put it to work…
7. We all pass gas… a lot…
Sorry to let this slip ladies and gentlemen, but on average, people pass gas about 15 times a day! While most of us do this privately, there are those who choose to share these with friends and family.
8. Veins don’t carry blue blood
I know every book shows veins in blue and arteries in red, but veins actually carry dark red blood, whereas arteries have bright red blood. Basically, your blood is always red, regardless of oxygenation.
You may notice blue veins on your wrists though, and they seem blue due to subcutaneous fat, which only allows blue light to penetrate all the way to the veins, which is then the only color reflected back, making the appear blue.
9. You blink 11,500 times a day!
The muscles that make your eyes blink are the fastest in your body. They “snap” in less than 1/100th of a second and do this eleven thousand five hundred times a day!
10. We spend one third of our lives asleep!
Let’s assume we make it to 80. By that time, you will have spent nearly 27 years asleep! Invest in a good mattress :).
Corporations and marketing teams have a singular focus when you enter the grocery store: make sure you choose to purchase their product. Companies create attractive packages, make healthy food claims, target children in advertisements and strategically place items on shelves (why do you think colorful cereal boxes are placed at kid height?). Included in these are deceptive food labels, which make claims that are either unnecessary, elusive or completely unregulated. To make you better prepared for your next grocery trip, we’ll tackle a majority of these claims below.
All natural (or Natural)
This one sounds really good when you read it. Of course, you want your food to be all natural! The alternative would be some synthesized ****, filled with god knows what. Unfortunately, this label doesn’t mean much of anything. Does anyone really consider Cheetos and Lays to be natural? Well, they claim to be…
Although the FDA has not engaged in rulemaking to establish a formal definition for the term “natural,” we do have a longstanding policy concerning the use of “natural” in human food labeling. The FDA has considered the term “natural” to mean that nothing artificial or synthetic (including all color additives regardless of source) has been included in, or has been added to, a food that would not normally be expected to be in that food. However, this policy was not intended to address food production methods, such as the use of pesticides, nor did it explicitly address food processing or manufacturing methods, such as thermal technologies, pasteurization, or irradiation.https://www.fda.gov/food/food-labeling-nutrition/use-term-natural-food-labeling
When it comes to all natural or natural, it’s best to just simply ignore it, as pretty much anyone can make this claim since there are NO regulations behind it. This is an extremely deceptive food label.
This label is very important for people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance. Only wheat, barley, and rye have gluten (nothing else). The supermarkets seem to slap this label on everything nowadays. For instance, the butter boxes below. Marketers add this to make you choose one item over the other since nothing aside from bread contains gluten.
Because no apples are made from wheat, barley or rye, if a bag of apples claims to be gluten free, keep in mind that all apples are gluten free.
Gluten free is another deceptive food label. If you have celiac disease or are gluten intolerant, you should be careful when it comes to gluten in products. Just realize, this should only be relevant when looking at items containing wheat, barley, or rye. We posted a great video on what gluten is, so check it out below.
We sound like a broken record here: foods contain a lot of unnecessary organic labels. THANKFULLY, the USDA recently added some regulations here. Watch our video on organic foods below to learn more.
When you’re shopping for organic food, make sure you only purchase foods containing the USDA label (below). Not one of the deceptive food labels :).
This label includes things like:
- At least 95% of ingredients are organic
- Things like baking soda or yogurt enzymes are allowed to be conventional
- Complete list here at USDA website
- No GMOs or synthetic fertilizers were used
- No artificial preservatives, colors, or flavors
- Farms were certified organic by the USDA
- Extremely lengthy process
- 30% of the livestock’s nutrition comes from pasture feeding
- Cattle fed 100% organic feed or forage
- No antibiotics or hormones administered to cattle
Free range or cage free
You’re buying some eggs and you see two boxes. Of course, you’re going to choose “free range”, you want the chickens that lay these eggs to have roamed around. USDA requirements are “free range must be produced by hens that are able to roam vertically and horizontally in indoor houses, and have access to fresh food and water, and continuous access to the outdoors during their laying cycle” (source). Free-range means that the chickens have access to the outdoors, but there are no requirements for the duration and quality of outdoor access.
Amazing facts about the human body
Read these recent articles about how amazing our human body is!
Also, check out this hilarious video posted by Funny or Die about deceptive food labels: